Friday, August 26, 2011

What is Silver

Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal prized for its color as well as its value and suitability in many fields. Slightly harder than gold, it is most well known as a precious metal valued for its shine and beauty.

With the chemical symbol Ag (Latin: argentum) and atomic number 47, silver has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal.

Silver occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver) and is often found with other minerals during mining. In fact, most silver is produced as a by-product of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, and it is used to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils (hence the term silverware), and currency coins. Today, silver metal is used in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants. Although the antimicrobial uses of silver have largely been supplanted by the use of antibiotics, further research into its clinical potential is in progress.

Silver is used extensively in the manufacture of electrocal components, contacts and has many other electronic uses. It is also used in mirrors as a backing, in catalysis of various chemical reactions as well as in the photographic industry despite the advent of digital cameras.

To some degree it is still used a antimicrobial agent.

Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are also used as disinfectants.

Silver is also used in medals, denoting second place. Some high-end musical instruments are made from sterling silver, for example, the flute.

Here are the technical specifications on silver.

General Properties
Name: silver
symbol: Ag
number: 7
Element category: transition metal
Group: 11
period: 5
block: d
Standard atomic weight: 107.8682?g.mol?1
Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s1
Electrons per shell: 2, 8, 18, 18, 1

Physical properties

Phase: solid
Density (near r.t.): 10.49
Liquid density at m.p: 9.320
Melting point: 1234.93 K,961.78 degrees C,1763.2 degrees F
Boiling point: 2435 K,2162 degrees C,3924 F
Heat of fusion: 11.28 kJ.mol 1
Heat of vaporization: 250.58 kJ.mol 1
Specific heat capacity:(25 degrees C) 25.350 J.mol 1degrees K 1

Atomic properties

Oxidation states: 1,2,3 (amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity:1.93 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies:
1st: 731.0 kJ.mol?1
2nd: 2070 kJ.mol?1
3rd: 3361 kJ.mol?1
Atomic radius: 144 pm
Covalent radius: 145 plus/minus 5 pm
Van der Waals radius 172 pm

Crystal structure: face-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering: diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity: (20 degrees C) 15.87 n?.m
Thermal conductivity: 300 K) 429 W.m?1.K?1
Thermal diffusivity:(300 K) 174 mm2/s
Thermal expansion:(25 degrees C) 18.9 m m?1.K?1
Young's modulus: 83 GPa
Shear modulus: 30 GPa
Bulk modulus: 100 GPa
Poisson ratio: 0.37
Mohs hardness: 2.5
Vickers hardness: 251 MPa
Brinell hardness: 24.5 MPa
CAS registry number: 7440-22-4

Outside of gold, silver is probably the most popular of precious metals and has been used consistently as money and as stored value for thousands of years. It is unlikely this would stop and we will very likely see a continue increase in the value of silver compared to fiat money.

Silver, in short is money. That is what silver is!

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